Scientific research is increasingly carried out by communities of researchers that span disciplines, laboratories, organizations and national boundaries. These activities involve geographically distributed and heterogeneous resources such as computational systems, scientific instruments, databases, sensors, software components, networks, and people. Such large-scale and enhanced scientific endeavors are carried out via collaborations on a global scale in which information and computing technology plays a vital role and are thus popularly termed as e-Science.
Grid computing has emerged as one of the key computing paradigms that enable the creation and management of Internet-based utility computing infrastructure, called Cyber-infrastructure, for realization of e-Science and e-Business at the global level. Many national and international projects around the world have been initiated to carry out research and innovation activities that transform the vision of e-Science and Grid computing into reality. These activities require considerable power resources, and, as many books about energy
point out, such resource consumption must be taken into account.